An Introduction to Self-Assessment
Submit Articles Back to Articles
Self Assessment started in 1997, the idea being that taxpayers can easily
complete their own tax returns. The reality has turned out to not be quite so
The tax year runs from 6th April to 5th April in the following year and under
self-assessment it is up to the individual taxpayer to calculate their own tax
liability and pay the tax due by the due date.
Who has to fill in a Self-Assessment Return?
The majority of people in the UK are taxed under PAYE and do not have to
complete a Self Assessment tax return. However, where you have income that is
not taxed at source or may be liable to higher rate tax on income that has only
had basic rate tax stopped you will probably need to complete a self-assessment
return. It is your responsibility to notify chargeability to tax to HMRC.
The following people usually have to complete one...
- Anyone who is self-employed;
- A company director;
- A trustee;
- Pensioners with an annual income of £100,000 or more;
- Employees or pensioners with an annual income from savings or investments
of £10,000 or more;
- An employee or pensioner with untaxed annual income of £2,500 or more;
- A landlord who rents out property or land;.
If you are unsure whether you need to complete one, please contact us for
Filing the Self- Assessment Return
If you are required to complete a return, they are normally issued to you at
the beginning of April each year. The basic return is 10 pages but many sources
of income require supplementary pages to be completed as well. Some people
receive a short tax return of only 4 pages.
As well as your income it deals with the allowances and reliefs that you can
You can get HMRC to calculate your tax and National Insurance liability if
you submit the return to them by 30 September following the end of the tax year.
Alternatively if you do the calculation yourself you have until 31 January
following the end of the tax year to file the return. If you file the tax return
online through the HMRC website the software will calculate your tax liability
If the return isn't filed by the due date, there is an automatic fine of
£100, which is reduced to the level of tax due if that is less. There is a
further £100 fine if your return is still outstanding six months later.
Due Dates of Payment
The method of payment usually involves two payments on account of your tax
liability as follows...
- one on 31 January during the tax year and
- another on 31 July following the tax year.
These are based on the net income tax and Class 4 NIC liability of the
previous tax year .
A final payment (or repayment) is due on 31 January following the tax year.
Thereafter, there is a 5% surcharge on any taxes that remain unpaid after 28
February, and a further 5% on taxes not paid after 31 July.
If your total tax liability for 2007/08 is £5,000 and for 2008/09 is £10,000,
you will make payments for 2008/09 as follows...
On 31/1/09 - £2500 (half of the 2007/08 total)
On 31/7/09 - £2500 (half of the 2007/08 total)
On 31/1/10 - £10,000 (being the £5000 balance due for 2008/09 and £5000 -
half of 2008/09 - on account of 2009/010)
In calculating the level of instalments any tax due on capital gains of the
previous year is ignored. All CGT is paid as part of the final payment due on 31
January following the end of the tax year.
The payments on account are not required if...
- income tax and NIC liability for the previous year (net of tax deducted at
source) is below £500 (doubled to £1000 from 2009/10 with first payment
affected being 31 January 2010) or
- more than 80% of the income tax and NIC liability for the previous year
was tax deducted at source.
You can also apply to have the payments on account reduced if you expect your
liability for a tax year to be less than the previous year.
Amendments to Returns and Enquiries
HMRC can correct a self assessment return within nine months of the return
being filed in order to correct any obvious errors or mistakes in the return and
an individual can amend their self assessment at any time within 12 months of
the filing date.
For tax returns issued before 6th April 2008, HMRC have 12 months following
the filing deadline to enquire into a Return. So for example, the 2006/07 return
which usually has to be filed by 31 Jan 08, the enquiry deadline would be 31 Jan
09. If HMRC have not opened an enquiry by then, they cannot subsequently enquire
into it unless they make a discovery of information relevant to the return or
the taxpayer makes an error or mistake claim. Enquiries can be aspect enquiries
into just one aspect of the return or they can cover a full enquiry into the
whole return, in which case expert advice should be sought.
For tax returns issued from 6 April 2008 the enquiry window is altered to one
year from the date the return is received by HMRC, which will therefore offer a
real incentive to file your tax return early.
By law you must keep all records in support of the tax return for at least 22
months after the end of the tax year, but if you are self-employed or have
rented property the records must be kept for five years and ten months after the
end of the tax year.
You can be fined up to £3,000 if you fail to maintain or retain adequate
records to back the return.
About the Author
Jonathan Amponsah BSc FCCA is a UK Tax Expert and the founding partner of
A M P Associates –
A specialist firm of chartered certified accountants and tax advisers based in
London and Surrey. Jonathan advises on a wide range of business and tax issues
and he is recognized for his proactive and innovative approach to taxation.
Jonathan can be contacted on 0845 009 8845 or email:email@example.com
Follow us @Scopulus_News
Article Published/Sorted/Amended on Scopulus 2008-04-10 10:13:39 in Tax Articles