Leading with Power and Authority
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One of the most significant aspects of leadership involves the stewardship of
resources both collective and individual. People instinctively want to
understand how their needs will be met in the present and in the future. When
they are confident their needs will be cared for, they experience a sense of
control and a feeling of power. Ironically, in the process they must acknowledge
a dependence upon collective action for success. They internalize the collective
agenda as their ownóa deep sense of trust in the organization and its leadership
is the result. Leading by influencing people's belief in the fairness of
resource flows and their trust that they will eventually benefit, is a powerful
aspect of leadership.
Like the deep green of the rainforest canopy, when leadership provides its
members with the resources they need to grow, the organizational canopy is
teaming with life. In this second of a series of articles exploring the spectrum
of leadership influence, I address the question: how does deep green leadership
The Story Part 1: The Conundrum One Thursday afternoon as a scheduled meeting
was breaking up, Lynn, the CEO, realized he had time to stop by the field office
in town. He had hoped he could as this office was one of the lower performing
ones in the region. He sent his driver ahead with his luggage saying he would
have the office manager drive him to the airport after his visit.
When he arrived at the plush offices, he was taken by the emptiness of the
space, the quiet and relatively low energy level. The support staff seemed to be
making themselves busy and the members of the outside sales team who were in the
office, were busily doing paperwork between conversations with office mates.
When questions were posed about how things could be run more effectively, Lynn
was struck by the pervasive sense of powerlessness. Productive work was hard to
identify against the backdrop of make-work activity.
Lynn regretted having become disconnected from the organization. He
remembered a few months back when he visited a high performance office. It had
seemed as though an "invisible hand" was guiding action, efficiently and
He remembered feeling that things were going well then, that actions seemed
directed and everyone was excited and happy. They came in early and stayed late.
The pace of action was quick and efficient. Now, in contrast, people seemed to
be making work, active but without clear link to the organization's objectives.
They were doing what they thought was right, but weren't sure. Morale, it seems,
had sagged. As he left the office and headed for the airport, he made a mental
note: "Our leadership plan needs work," he thought.
Analysis and Perspective In his leadership role, Lynn was appropriately, if
informally, monitoring a leading indicator of performance. When he noted the
apparent confusion regarding efficient resource allocation and a pervasive sense
of powerlessness he was observing an indicator of sagging leadership
effectiveness. He appropriately hypothesized that this decline was related to a
reduced "velocity" of leadership across the organization, the amount of time
spent on leadership activities was declining. Because a pervasive sense of
powerlessness and confusion about resource distribution are indicative of a
decline in a specific type of leadership influence, called deep green
leadershipSM, he realized that he needed to initiate programs to reenergize this
type of leadership in the organization.
Lynn knew that three steps were required: first gather information about the
current situation, diagnose the issues and formulate hypotheses; second,
initiate specific leadership activities designed to shore-up the deeply held
sense of fairness in resource distribution across the firm and the sense of
potency or power that results; and third, institutionalize change by integrating
these initiatives into the organization's culture.
Lynn realized this would not be easy. His leadership teams must find ways to
influence members' deeply held beliefs about their relationship with the
organization and their sense of the organization's fairness. The benefits of
success are great, however, because a sense of fairness enables trust and
clarity of action. Both focus action on collective benefits rather than on
Case Study Examples Many organizations face periods where change in the
environment or to the organization's structure disrupts the flow of resources
through the system. The organization's members begin to wonder what these
changes mean to them and whether they will be treated fairly. During these
periods, the organization's members do not feel in control of their own
situation and of their organization's success. They spend time and energy trying
to understand what the situation means to them and attempting to position
themselves to benefit or simply to protect their interests. Sometimes they even
consider leaving. To prepare for possible inequity, some members use the
organization's resources to feather their nests and accumulate power in order to
feel in control. Upon reflection, Lynn realized that he himself had used his
driver to satisfy his personal needs even as those of the organization were not
best served. When the sense of unfairness or lack of control occurs broadly
across the organization, leadership intervention is required.
The success of Intel in the microprocessor business is legendary, but it
didn't have to be that way. The Intel story might have been quite different if
some of its managers had not been skilled at gaining access to firm resources,
that is, at deep green leadership.
From the moment he joined Intel, technologist Les Kohn believed the firm
should enter the reduced instruction set computing (RISC) processor market
pioneered by competitors Sun Microsystems and Motorola. However, strategically,
Intel had decided not to enter the market and had not allocated resources to the
Kohn knew he needed to garner firm resources if his dream was to be realized.
He also knew that a skunk works project would not have sufficient scale and
scope to build the team he needed. Therefore, he decided to "sell" the project
to top-management as a co-processor to be sold along with Intel's core products,
rather than as a stand-alone processor that would have competed with Intel's
core product line.
With the product funded, resources flowed to the project and to those working
on it. Fortunately, market momentum grew and because the product had good
margins, Intel's production rules ensured adequate fabrication capacity and
other resources were supplied to the product. With his focus on providing the
needed resources to his project and his team, Kohn exhibited deep green
leadership influence. Likewise, Intel prospered in a new market with growing
* * * Michael Dell, founder and CEO of Dell Computer Corporation is a master
of deep green leadership. His organization is famous for aligning resources with
strategy and leads its industry with power and authority. In his memoirs Dell
emphasizes how important it is for all employees to understand the organizations
value creation strategy and to realize that their rewards are related to actions
that directly support this strategy. "We explained specifically how everyone
could contribute.... And we make it the core of our incentive compensation plan
for all employees.2" At Dell Computer, power and authority, not to mention
impressive returns over many years, were the direct result of the deep green
leadershipSM programs that provided clarity and alignment about resource flows.
These stories demonstrate the power of deep green leadership and its impact
on people, whether in a division or across the firm. When leadership operates to
reinforce people's deeply held sense fairness with respect to resources and
their access to them, they are empowered. This energizes them, so that everyone
organizes the collective effort, not just a few people at the top of the
The Story Part 2: Resolution When Lynn arrived in his office, he immediately
asked some tough questions. "How well do people understand their decision
authority? and do they understand how our business works? how resources flow and
decisions are made? Are we passionate that everyone has the tools and resources
they need to do their jobs? Do we critically review project plans and budgets
and make sure everyone controls the resources they need? Do people feel they
share in our collective success? How does the situation compare with six months
ago? How engaged are our people?
These were difficult questions, but ones that could be answered. The process
took several weeks, but once the data was gathered and preliminary analysis was
completed, the trend was clearóleadership activity aimed at clarifying the
resource distribution flows in the organization, deep green leadershipSM
activity, had fallen off in the organization.
When he had these answers, Lynn called his leadership team together to share
the findings and express his concerns. "We seem to have lost our edge," he said.
"I don't see the same level of self-motivation and energy in our people that I
did six months ago. Data showing reduced activity levels in this area across the
firm support my belief that there is cause for concern. Our leadership
velocitySM in the areas of resources, decision authority and reward distribution
has dropped off. To be the strong company we need to be, we have to do better."
The team had a difficult time at first, uncomfortable that all members of the
organization could ever feel they were being treated fairly and had what they
needed to do their jobs. It seemed a bit ambitious and perhaps na�ve to believe
everyone could be made to think the organization was fair in its resource
distribution. "Life isn't fair", some managers argued.
What began as a one-hour discussion, continued into the evening. Follow-up
meetings were held with a much broader array of leaders. It became clear from
the interaction that even among the leadership, there was a sense that there was
an unevenness or arbitrariness in decision making, and tellingly, that this was
okay. Renewal was needed. As Lynn knew, it had already begun.
In the course of the discussion, it was agreed that a key objective over the
next six months was to greatly clarify the decision-making authorities and
resource flows across the organization. Each group agreed to work within their
teams to clarify and document their value creation strategies and the decision
making process at all levels of their organization. Monthly town meetings were
planned with the sole focus on how the firm did business, what drove success and
how each person's work fit into the process. In parallel, the compensation
programs of the firm were reviewed and communication plans developed to further
everyone's understanding of how resources were used and distributed in the
organization. The process cascaded into the organization until a consistent and
clear picture of the business began to emerge across the organization. The
quarterly cultural survey in use was modified to include targeted questions to
provide on-going feedback.
After six months, the results of this initiative were documented in a new
section of on the firm's employee website. As appropriate, aspects were also
integrated into the organizations planning process thus providing much greater
clarity and visibility to into the process. All managers were asked to
communicate the process with their teams and provide feedback. After several
months, the changes to the process dwindled to a manageable level, and
enthusiasm was up. Excitement was evident and morale was improving.
To close out the cycle of leadership, Lynn asked his teams to propose ways to
be proactive, with continuous feedback and action. He realized that leadership
requires discipline and vigilance and that nothing works forever. At the same
time, he didn't want to wait for the same problem to surface again.
Epilogue On a recent visit to the same sales office he had visited earlier,
Lynn shared a ride with a sales manager who was also heading to the airport. He
found it was a good opportunity to learn what a junior manager was thinking and
how she thought about the organization. "You know", she said a bit timidly, "I'm
glad to know you're sharing your ride to the airport. We are pretty close to
hitting out stretch objective this quarter and we need to save every dime we
can. I'm hoping to have a little extra spending money at Disney World this
As he pulled his luggage from the trunk with a loud "thump!", Lynn smiled to
himself. He was happy to share his car if it helped her have a little more fun
with her family. She deserved it.
About the Author
1Burgelman, R.A. (1991). Intra-organizational ecology of strategy making and
organizational adaptation: Theory and field research. Organization Science,
2Dell, Michael with Catherine Fredman. (1999) Direct from Dell: Strategies
that revolutionized an industry. New York; Harper Business. p.135.
About the author: (c) Copyright 2004 James K. Hazy, Ed.D. Leadership Science
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Article Published/Sorted/Amended on Scopulus 2007-04-22 19:40:33 in Employee Articles